The Papal States divided Italy for about 1260 years (606-1866)
Giuseppe Garibaldi -
Father of Modern Italy
1807 (July 4) Born at Nice or Nizza (at that time part of France), the son of Domenico Garibaldi, a fisherman and coastal trader. The Great Liberator of the old world was born on the 31 birthday of the United States and just 2 years before the Great Liberator of the New World, Abraham Lincoln in 1809. His birthplace Nice or Nizza was always part of Italy until it was ceded to the French in 1796.
1814 Nice is once again joined to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.
1824-33 Garibaldi lives as a sailor in the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
1832 He acquires his master's certificate as a merchant captain.
1833 In touch with Mazzini's patriotic organization, Young Italy, and visits its headquarters at Marseilles.
1834 As a naval rating in the Piedmontese navy, he takes part in a mutiny for the republican cause. Sentenced to death by default, after escaping to France.
1835 Takes casual jobs in France and with the Bey of Tunis.
1836 Sails for Rio de Janeiro from Marseilles in a 200 ton brigantine.
He meets his Brazilian born wife Anita who becomes his companion-in-arms and heroine of the Risorgimento. She was just as brave as Garibaldi often fighting side by side with her hero husband. She died during the retreat from Rome in '49.
1836-40 As soldier, corsair, and naval captain, he fights for the break-away province of Rio Grande, in its attempt to free itself from the Brazilian Empire.
1841 He tries his hand at various jobs-including cattle herdsman, trader, and schoolmaster at Montevideo.
1842 Put in command of the small Orientale (Uruguayan) fleet against Manuel de Rosas, the dictator of Argentina.
1843 Also becomes commander of the newly formed Italian Legion at Montevideo.
1846 Wins the "battle" of St. Antonio, after which a sword of honor is subscribed for him in Italy. Lord John Russell is appointed Prime Minister in Great Britain.
1847 Briefly in command of the defense of Montevideo. Offers his services to Pope Pius IX but is refused.
1848 (April) Leads eighty of his legionaries back to Italy. (July) Vainly offers to fight for the king of Piedmont. (August) In command of a volunteer unit at Milan against the Austrians, and survives two brisk engagements at Luino and Morrazzone.
1849 (February) As an elected deputy in the Roman Assembly (after the flight of Pius IX), he proposes the creation of a Roman Republic. (April) As a general of brigade, he beats off an attack by the French at the St. Pancrazio gate of Rome. (May) Defeats a Neapolitan army at Velletri. (June) Takes a principal part in defending Rome against further French attacks. (July) Leads a few thousand men from Rome through central Italy to escape from French and Austrian armies. (August) After disbanding his men in San Marino, he is chased at sea and on land by the Austrians; his first wife, Anita, dies. (September) As soon as he arrives back in Piedmontese territory, he is arrested and deported as an undesirable.
Garibaldi is pursued by 100,000 of the Pope's soldiers. His beloved wife Anita, who is sick and pregnant, refuses to leave his side and she dies on the beach. The Pope had placed an enormous bounty on his head but not one Italian betrays him to the Papal Army.
Pope Pius IX (1846-1878).
Pope blesses the victorious French Army at the Vatican.
Pope Pius IX was the longest reigning Pope in history and the great antagonist of Italian unity. During his reign the firing squads and the scaffolds were kept busy day and night. He urged the Austrians to set up the guillotine and he would not allow railroads to be built in the Papal States.
1849-50 Lives for seven months in Tangiers, where he writes the first edition of his memoirs.
Ticker tape parade on Broadway.
Garibaldi was offered a ticker tape parade up the "canyon of heroes" in New York City. The Jesuits stirred up the Irish Catholics against him and in order to keep the peace he refused the offer. Of all the many world famous personalities to have been offered this singular honor, Garibaldi remains the only person to date to have refused it!!
Garibaldi stayed at this house on Staten Island, New York. It was the home of inventor Antonio Meucci who is said to have invented the telephone before Alexander Graham Bell!!
Garibaldi Monument in New York City
Garibaldi statue in Washington Sq. Park, downtown New York City. Make it destination #1 when you visit the Big Apple.
1851-52 Travels to Peru.
1852-53 As a "citizen of Peru," he captains a clipper to the far east, returning to Lima via Australia and New Zealand.
1854 Returns by way of New York, carrying a cargo of coal from Newcastle (England) to Genoa.
1855 Engaged to an English lady, Mrs. Emma Roberts. Buys part of the Island of Caprera, north of Sardinia.
1856 Comes to England on a scheme (largely financed by individual British politicians and British secret service funds) to buy a ship and lead an expedition to release political prisoners in Naples; but the ship is wrecked.
1858 Goes to Turin to meet Count Cavour, the Piedmontese Prime Minister, who wants him to organize a corps of volunteers, in anticipation of another war against Austria.
1859 (April) As a general in the Piedmontese army, he forms this corps, the Cacciatori delle Alpi, and war begins. (May) Takes Varese and Como, while the main Franco-Piedmontese forces are fighting in the plain of Lombardy. (September) After the armistice of Villafranco, Baron Ricosok gives him command of the army of Tuscany. (November) When his project to march into the Papal States is overruled, he returns to civil life.
1860 (April) As deputy for Nice in the Piedmontese parliament at Turin, he attacks Cavour for ceding Nice to Louis Napoleon, Emperor of the French. (May) He sets out with a thousand volunteers on a piratical raid against the forces of the Neapolitan Bourbons. After an engagement at Calatafimi, he captures Palermo, the capital of Sicily. (July) He wins the battle of Milazzo, near Messina. (August) Crosses the Straits of Messina, eluding the sizable Neapolitan navy. (September) After a lightning campaign in Calabria, he captures Naples, the largest town in Italy, and makes himself "Dictator of the Two Sicilies." (October) After a big battle on the Volturno River, he holds plebiscites in Sicily and Naples, and then gives the whole of southern Italy to Cavour, proclaiming Victor Emanuel as King of a united nation. (November) He returns to Caprera, which now remains permanently his home.
1861 (April) He attacks Cavour in parliament over the latter's ungenerous treatment of the volunteers. (July) President Lincoln offers him a command in the American Civil War, but has to withdraw the offer after a storm of protest from the Vatican.
1862 (July) He begins agitating in Sicily for another march on Rome, evidently with some encouragement from the King and Rattazzi, the Prime Minister. (August) Seriously wounded in a clash with Italian troops at Aspromonte, in Calabria. (October) After being imprisoned, he is granted an amnesty by the King.
1863 Resigns from parliament because of martial law being applied in Sicily.
Triumphal reception in England.
Garibaldi welcomed in London.
A reception given by the Duchess of Sutherland at Stafford House.
The whole country shut down for 3 days when Garibaldi visited London in 1864. High and low received him except Queen Victoria and the royal family. Thousands of children lined the streets and they all chanted this little ditty:
We'll get a rope,
And hang the Pope:
So up with Garibaldi!
1866 Leads another volunteer army in a new war against Austria, after which Venice is joined to Italy.
1867 Again attempts a march on Rome, but is beaten by papal and French forces at Mentana, and once again is arrested by the Italian government.
1870 Joins republican France in the Franco-Prussian war, and is made commander of an army in the Vosges....This is one of the most important years in history. After 1260 years, Rome ceases to be governed by the Popes and becomes the Capital of the new united Italy. Pius IX declares himself infallible in the same year!!
Map of Italy after the fall of the Papal States
The Fourth Beast Papal Rome receives a deadly wound from the sword of Garibaldi.
1879 Comes to Rome in an attempt to organize the parliamentary opposition against Depretis, the Prime Minister. The Court of Appeal annuls his twenty-year-old marriage to the Marchesina Raimondi, so that he can marry a third wife, Francesca Armosino, by whom he already has several children.
Garibaldi in his golden years.
(June 2) Dies and goes to his eternal reward in Heaven.